The first two emphasize language, cultural, and training skills in working with foreign troops. As special operations units, Special Forces are not necessarily under the command authority of the ground commanders in those countries. This cooperation still exists today and is seen in the War in Afghanistan.
These entities will continue to challenge and redefine the global distribution of power, the concept of sovereignty, and the nature of warfare. Globalization, technology, population growth, urbanization, and demand for natural resources are creating an environment where the location of the next crisis requiring American intervention is not always predictable.
Generally with little notice, Army units will be employed in complex and multidimensional environments; usually fought in urban terrain among noncombatant populations.
Additionally, they will be called on to conduct full spectrum operations as part of an interdependent joint force conducting simultaneous offensive, defensive, and stability operations. See FM for a detailed description of the operational environment.
There are four major threat categories intelligence analysts must assist the commander and staff in understanding: Radical fundamentalists, transnational terrorists, and guerrilla forces are examples of irregular threat.
These groups will employ unconventional and asymmetric methods and means to counter U.
Irregular warfare includes terrorism, insurgency, and guerilla warfare. Army units are likely to face any combination of these threats when deployed. By combining irregular, traditional, catastrophic, and disruptive capabilities, adversaries will seek to create advantageous conditions by changing the nature of the conflict from one where U.
Examples include multinational training exercises, security assistance, joint combined exchange training, recovery operations, arms control, and counterdrug operations.
Combat is not likely during these operations, but terrorist attacks are always possible and force protection and operations security OPSEC are major concerns.
They are normally conducted by joint task forces. Examples of limited interventions are noncombatant evacuation, raids, show of force, foreign humanitarian assistance, consequence management, sanction enforcement, and elimination of weapons of mass destruction WMDs.
Like peacetime military engagement, combat is not likely. However, the threat of terrorist attacks is possible, as are attacks from the general population.
The primary purpose of peace operations is to create a safe and secure environment, deter adversaries from overt actions against each other, and provide time for civilian agencies to generate a self-sustaining peace.
Peace operations include peacekeeping, peace building, peacemaking, peace enforcement, and conflict prevention. Peace operations normally occur in complex environments.
They are characterized by asymmetric threats, a failing government, absence of the rule of law, terrorism, human rights abuses, collapse of civil infrastructure, and the presence of dislocated civilians.
Attacks by insurgent and terrorist groups are likely, and U. It differs from conventional operations in two aspects.
First, it is warfare among and within the people. Second, it emphasizes an indirect approach. Irregular warfare avoids direct military confrontation. Instead, it combines irregular forces and indirect unconventional methods to exhaust the opponent.
Types of operations U. Traditionally, these missions are conducted by special forces. However, if special forces and host-nation HN forces cannot defeat unconventional and irregular threats, conventional Army forces can assume the lead role.
In this instance, U. Major combat operations are the operational theme for which doctrine, including the principles of war, was originally developed.The U.S. Army and the Lewis and Clark Expedition, prepared as part of the Army's contribution to the observance of the Lewis and Clark Bicentennial Commemoration (), is an engaging account of a stirring and significant event in American military heritage.
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