Definition[ edit ] Art history as we know it in the 21st century began in the 19th century but has precedents that date to the ancient world. Like the analysis of historical trends in politics, literature, and the sciences, the discipline benefits from the clarity and portability of the written word, but art historians also rely on formal analysissemioticspsychoanalysis and iconography.
About the Author We may not always know it, but we think in metaphor. A large proportion of our most commonplace thoughts make use of an extensive, but unconscious, system of metaphorical concepts, that is, concepts from a typically concrete realm of thought that are used to comprehend another, completely different domain.
Such concepts are often reflected in everyday language, but their most dramatic effect comes in ordinary reasoning. Because so much of our social and political reasoning makes use of this system of metaphorical concepts, any adequate appreciation of even the most mundane social and political thought requires an understanding of this system.
But unless one knows that the system exists, one may miss it altogether and be mystified by its effects. For me, one of the most poignant effects of the ignorance of metaphorical thought is the mystification of liberals concerning the recent electoral successes of conservatives.
Conservatives regularly chide liberals for not understanding them, and they are right. Liberals don't understand how anti-abortion "right-to-life" activists can favor the death penalty and oppose reducing infant morality through prenatal care programs.
They don't understand why budget-cutting conservatives should spare no public expense to build prison after prison to house even non-violent offenders, or why they are willing to spend extra money to take children away from their mothers and put them in orphanages in the name of family values.
They don't understand why conservatives attack violence in the media while promoting the right to own machine guns. Liberals tend not to understand the logic of conservatism; they don't understand what form of morality makes conservative positions moral or what conservative family values have to do with the rest of conservative politics.
The reason at bottom is that liberals do not understand the form of metaphorical thought that unifies and makes sense of the full range of conservative values. To understand what metaphor has to do with conservative politics, we must begin with that part of our metaphor system that is used to conceptualize morality -- a system of roughly two dozen metaphors.
To illustrate how the system works, let us begin with one of the most prominent metaphors in the system -- the metaphor by which morality is conceptualized in terms of accounting. Keeping the Moral Books We all conceptualize well-being as wealth. We understand an increase in well-being as a "gain" and a decrease of well-being as a "loss" or a "cost.
When two people interact causally with each other, they are commonly conceptualized as engaging in a transaction, each transferring an effect to the other.
An effect that helps is conceptualized as a gain; one that harms, as a loss. Thus moral action is conceptualized in terms of financial transaction. Just as literal bookkeeping is vital to economic functioning, so moral bookkeeping is vital to social functioning.
And just as it is important that the financial books be balanced, so it is important that the moral books be balanced. Of course, the "source domain" of the metaphor, the domain of financial transaction, itself has a morality: It is moral to pay your debts and immoral not to.An Essay on Academic Disciplines, Faithfulness, and the Christian Scholar By Paul Gould Christian scholars inhabit two communities: the community of Christians and the academic discipline, focusing primarily on the integration of faith and scholarship, and when appropriate, the implications for teaching and service.
I discuss (1) an. An Essay on Academic Disciplines, Faithfulness, and the Christian Scholar. by Paul Gould. In this essay, it will be argued that an academic discipline is best understood as a social practice composed of guiding principles, a guiding methodology, a data set and a collective narrative (with characters, acts and various sub-stories throughout its history).
example, there is the argument that complex discipline-transgressing phenomena are irreducible and that they cannot be understood adequately by using reductionist disciplinary approaches.4 Furthermore, the prevalent tendency in What Are Academic Disciplines?. The Metropolitan Museum of Art is one of the world's largest and finest art museums.
Its collection includes more than two million works of art spanning five thousand years of world culture, from prehistory to the present and from every part of the globe. Apr 12, · Most students doing PTE Academic gets stressed about PTE Essay Topics..
Worrying about getting an unfamiliar topic and not having any good ideas to write about the subject, is making students stressed and nervous. Gates Millennium Scholars Program Promoting Academic Excellence + Providing Opportunities + Reducing Financial Barriers For 20, outstanding students of color.