These do not appear to be in any of the British Library's collections, but are now clearly "visible" in the Institution of Mechanical Engineer's electronic archive and have been inspected in the Institution of Mechanical Engineers' excellent Library.
Processing[ edit ] The "organized chaos" of a scrapyard Scrap metal originates both in business and residential environments.
Typically a "scrapper" will advertise their services to conveniently remove scrap metal for people who don't need it. Scrap is often taken to a wrecking yard also known as a scrapyard, junkyard, or breaker's yardwhere it is processed for later melting into new products.
A wrecking yard, depending on its location, may allow customers to browse their lot and purchase items before they are sent to the smeltersalthough many scrap yards that deal in large quantities of scrap usually do not, often selling entire units such as engines or machinery by weight with no regard to their functional status.
Customers are typically required to supply all of their own tools and labor to extract parts, and some scrapyards may first require waiving liability for personal injury before entering. Many scrapyards also sell bulk metals stainless steeletc.
A scrap metal shredder is often used to recycle items containing a variety of other materials in combination with steel. Examples are automobiles and white goods such as refrigerators, stoves, clothes washers etc.
These items are labor-intensive to manually sort things like plastic, copper, aluminum and brass. By shredding into relatively small pieces, the steel can easily be separated out magnetically. The non-ferrous waste stream requires other techniques to sort. In contrast to wrecking yards, scrapyards typically sell everything by weight, instead of by item.
To the scrapyard, the primary value of the scrap is what the smelter will give them for it, rather than the value of whatever shape the metal may be in. An auto wrecker, on the other hand, would price exactly the same scrap based on what the item does, regardless of what it weighs.
Typically, if a wrecker cannot sell something above the value of the metal in it, they would then take it to the scrapyard and sell it by weight. Equipment containing parts of various metals can often be purchased at a price below that of either of the metals, due to saving the scrapyard the labor of separating the metals before shipping them to be recycled.
Loading scrap gondolas in Eugene, Oregon Scrap prices may vary markedly over time and in different locations. Prices are often negotiated among buyers and sellers directly or indirectly over the Internet. Prices displayed as the market prices are not the prices that recyclers will see at the scrap yards.
Other prices are ranges or older and not updated frequently. Some scrap yards' websites have updated scrap prices. In the US, scrap prices are reported in a handful of publications, including American Metal Marketbased on confirmed sales as well as reference sites such as Scrap Metal Prices and Auctions.
Non-US domiciled publications, such as The Steel Index, also report on the US scrap price, which has become increasingly important to global export markets. Scrap yards directories are also used by recyclers to find facilities in the US and Canada, allowing users to get in contact with yards.
With resources online for recyclers to look at for scrapping tips, like web sites, blogs, and search engines, scrapping is often referred to as a hands and labor-intensive job. Taking apart and separating metals is important to making more money on scrap, for tips like using a magnet to determine ferrous and non-ferrous materials, that can help recyclers make more money on their metal recycling.
When a magnet sticks to the metal, it will be a ferrous material, like steel or iron. This is usually a less expensive item that is recycled but usually is recycled in larger quantities of thousands of pounds.
Non-ferrous metals like copper, aluminum, and brass do not stick to a magnet. Some cheaper grades of stainless steel are magnetic, other grades are not.
These items are higher priced commodities for metal recycling and are important to separate when recycling them. The prices of non-ferrous metals also tend to fluctuate more than ferrous metals so it is important for recyclers to pay attention to these sources and the overall markets. Hazards[ edit ] Great potential exists in the scrap metal industry for accidents in which a hazardous material present in scrap causes death, injury, or environmental damage.
Toxic materials such as asbestos or metals such as berylliumcadmiumor mercury may pose dangers to personnel, as well as contaminating materials intended for metal smelters.
Many specialized tools used in scrapyards are hazardous, such as the alligator shear which cuts metal using hydraulic force, compactorsand scrap metal shredders. Benefits of recycling[ edit ] Pile of shredded scrap in Norway Scrap railway line repurposed as farm fencing corner post According to research conducted by the US Environmental Protection Agencyrecycling scrap metals can be quite beneficial to the environment.
Using recycled scrap metal in place of virgin iron ore can yield: Every ton of new steel made from scrap steel saves:COM Week 5 Final Paper Personal Communication Skills Assessment Portfolio /Introduction to Communication.
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