Adaptive Strategies[ edit ] People all over the world rely on modes of production, distribution, and consumption in order to provide food and other commodities necessary in life. These modes differ based on culture in the ways that humans relate to and make use of the natural environment, how humans relate to each other, and how the institutions of society and federal states cause change.
Among these inputs is agricultural machinery. Mechanization of agricultural land has grown rapidly in the Philippines since the 's, particularly in the major rice producing areas such as Central Luzon and Laguna.
Increased use of mechanical land preparation and threshing attests to the farm-level profitability of this new technology. Mechanization, along with other new technology, has induced an upward shift in production by increasing output and decreasing costs.
Furthermore, the cost of producing and using tractors and threshers has been reduced, thus encouraging higher adoption rates. The overall effect of increased production and reduced costs is increased incomes, assuming the price of rice remains constant.
On the other hand, mechanization, by its capital-intensive nature, has been divisive in its impact. Although incomes have increased in general, the large farmers and owners of mechanical power have been the prime beneficiaries.
This, together with inequality in rates of adoption, has tended to produce greater inequality in the distribution of income. In particular, it explores income differences across several dimensions including irrigation and mechanization.
A stratified sample of rice farm households from eight villages in Cabanatuan and Guimba was used. Stratification is by irrigation rainfed, irrigated one-crop, irrigated two-crop and mechanization animal, two-wheel tractor, and four-wheel tractor.
Irrigation is based on the type of water control. Mechanization is based on the type of power used for plowing. Owing togross shifts in type of power used from the wet season to the dry seasona poststratification scheme was devised.
For analysis by crop year, mechanization classes are categorized into the following: Rice farm households which used only animal power for the entire crop year were considered non-mechanized while those which used machines for land preparation during the crop year were defined as fully mechanized.
The partially mechanized households included those which shifted from animal to machine or Vice versa during the year. Irrigation levels are rainfed, pump, and gravityirrigated. Pump irrigation is from deep wells and occurs in an otherwise rainfed area.
Onfarm income represents returns to crop and livestock production on the farmer's own farm. Off-farm earnings include income derived from agricultural work on other farms.
Nonfarm earnings are derived from nonagricultural work such as services, commerce and industry or the practice of a profession. The method considers the sampling design to correct for the bias that is a result 9f the shifting across cells and the postsurvey stratification used.
The procedure essentially involves estimating the total for a variable x in the subpopulation and the total number of units in the subpopulation. Cross-classifying by irrigation, the incomes of mechnized farms are higher than the nonmechanized at any given level of irrigation.However, Posadas et al.
() reported three explanatory variables that had significant effects on annual gross sales: the average level of mechanization ($), number of FTE workers ($69,), and acres in production ($). The average area in production in the eight southern states, which was acres, was not considerably .
Family Economy is the basic structure of production and consumption in pre-industrial alphabetnyc.com economy constrained women, because the were confined to the .
propriately promote mechanization, such as subsidized credit for tractor purchase. This chapter documents the trends and sequential patterns in the adoption of mechan-ical technology (Section 2), assesses the evidence on the productivity and equity impact of mechanization (Section 3), and discusses the implication for mechanization policy (Section 4).
The impact of increasing farm size and mechanization on rural income and rice production in Zhejiang province, China. overestimation of the area allocated to double rice, with its very tight labour calendar.
However, the other cropping patterns allow greater flexibility, and the adopted set of constraints results in realistic simulations of. In the context of multiple factors influencing the processes of agricultural mechanization, with countries and regions at different levels of machinery and technology adoption and having a new model that advocates for integrated production systems interrelating all factors of production and management, it is considered highly relevant to analyze the present and future of agricultural mechanization in the .
Mechanization is one factor that has had a significant effect on TFP since the beginning of modern agriculture. Mechanized harvesting, for example, was a key factor in increasing cotton production in the last century (Figure 1).