In all academic writing, Quotations must have appropriate punctuation.
Each element should be followed by the punctuation mark shown here. Earlier editions of the handbook included the place of publication and required different punctuation such as journal editions in parentheses and colons after issue numbers.
In the current version, punctuation is simpler only commas and periods separate the elementsand information about the source is kept to the basics.
Quotations and reference citations are used for different purposes. You use quotations when you want to make an exact copy of the words of another author. Reference citations are used when you want to paraphrase and summarise sentences, passages and ideas in . Quotations marks are used to denote language taken from another author or source.. Quotation Mark Placement. For titles. If referencing the title of a chapter or smaller section of a larger work, set off the title with quotation marks. APA Citation Examples. Based on APA Publication Manual, 6th Edition () magazines, and scholarly journals), capitalize the first word of the title and subtitle and proper nouns only. Do not capitalize the rest (see example below). All major words in periodical titles should be give an in-text citation only using the following model.
End this element with a period. Depending upon the type of source, it should be listed in italics or quotation marks. A book should be in italics: A website should be in italics: A song or piece of music on an album should be in quotation marks: Title of container Unlike earlier versions, the eighth edition refers to "containers," which are the larger wholes in which the source is located.
For example, if you want to cite a poem that is listed in a collection of poems, the individual poem is the source, while the larger collection is the container.
The title of the container is usually italicized and followed by a comma, since the information that follows next describes the container.
The container may also be a television series, which is made up of episodes. The container may also be a website, which contains articles, postings, and other works. Interview by Gareth Von Kallenbach. In some cases, a container might be within a larger container.
You might have read a book of short stories on Google Books, or watched a television series on Netflix. It is important to cite these containers within containers so that your readers can find the exact source that you used. Accessed 27 May Other contributors In addition to the author, there may be other contributors to the source who should be credited, such as editors, illustrators, translators, etc.
If their contributions are relevant to your research, or necessary to identify the source, include their names in your documentation. In the eighth edition, terms like editor, illustrator, translator, etc. A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason. Annotated and with an introduction by Vara Neverow, Harcourt, Inc.
Version If a source is listed as an edition or version of a work, include it in your citation. Crowley, Sharon, and Debra Hawhee. Ancient Rhetorics for Contemporary Students. Number If a source is part of a numbered sequence, such as a multi-volume book, or journal with both volume and issue numbers, those numbers must be listed in your citation.The in-text citation is a brief reference within your text that indicates the source you consulted.
It should properly attribute any ideas, paraphrases, or direct quotations to your source, and should direct readers to the entry in the list of works cited.
Quotations marks are used to denote language taken from another author or source.. Quotation Mark Placement. For titles. If referencing the title of a chapter or smaller section of a larger work, set off the title with quotation marks. The second type of citation is the more detailed version of the reference.
This appears at the end of an essay or paper. It includes all of the information about the source, including the author, title, page numbers, and date of publication.
To indicate short quotations (four typed lines or fewer of prose or three lines of verse) in your text, enclose the quotation within double quotation marks. Provide the author and specific page citation (in the case of verse, provide line numbers) in the text, and include a complete reference .
PROPER CITATION, QUOTATION AND REFERENCING Once the student has reputable sources, and is developing the topic for the paper, it is time to think about the sources themselves.
When students are using citations in a paper, it is crucial to give credit to the author. Each of these examples properly cites the direct quotation, but I've varied the placement of the citation information.
By changing the order of information in the sentence, I can choose what information to emphasize. I hope these examples begin to demonstrate .