Contact Menu Join 62, marketing managers who get our best digital marketing insights, strategies and tips delivered straight to their inbox. However, considering how much of an influence the Internet has in our daily lives, how many of us actually know the story of how it got its start? Most of our daily lives are saturated with social mediaonline shopping, and browsing for new information, but how did we get to this point? While the complete history of the Internet could easily fill a few books, this article should familiarize you with key milestones and events related to the growth and evolution of the Internet between to
Our criteria By what criteria would we determine what was a primitive Internet? We will examine the various verifiable events according to the following criteria Was it a connection between networks?
Did it involve computers? Did it involve humans communicating with each other?
Was it an actual event and not a theoretical document? If a theory passes all these tests, the final test is - was it the first "Internet"? These criteria, we suggest, all have to be met before we have the event which could be called "the birthday of the Internet". If not all are met, we are dealing with a different but perhaps closely related species, or with a theory which was at that place and time untested.
So, let the games begin!
Theory One - Packet switching represents the origins of the Internet The Arpanet claim to Internet origins largely rests on acceptance of this theory and a belief that this was the first ever packet switching exchange.
As Kleinrock is purported to have reflected on the 35th anniversary of this event in"When we sent that first message, it marked the birth of a new method of global communications that has forever changed the course of business, politics, entertainment, education and social interaction, Now, 35 years later, the Internet has become so pervasive that even my year-old mother uses it.
It was not the first packet switching event It was not about people communicating over distance It was not a connection relating to "a network of networks".
Let's explore the flaws in this theory in more detail. It never got funded; but Donald Davies did develop the concept of packet switching, a means by which messages can travel from point to point across a network. Kim Veltman goes further in exploring this "We are almost always told that the Internet began solely in America.
This is not really true. The earliest pioneers included a Frenchman, Louis Pouzin, who introduced the idea of data grams and an Englishman, Donald W. Davies, who was one of the inventors of packet-switching. Another of the great pioneers in Britain was Peter T.
Kirstein, who went to America at the beginning of the Arpanet in when it was decided that Davies could not go for reasons of national security.
Hence an English project of inspired the beginnings of the US Internet in ". What follows from this analysis is that, if we believe that the first trials of packet switching represents the beginnings of the Internet, the Internet began in the UK, not USA. But does that theory meet all our tests?
Arpanet in was not about people communicating over distance Another reason to reject the Arpanet origins theory is that the Arpanet was not about people communicating over distance at all - something which would be a primary determinant of what we know as the Internet. Arpanet was about time-sharing.
Time sharing tried to make it possible for research institutions to use the processing power of other institutions computers when they had large calculations to do that required more power, or when someone else's facility might do the job better.
Although Arpanet developed packet switching, Larry Roberts Project Manager and Architect for the Arpanet project makes it clear that sending messages between people was "not an important motivation for a network of scientific computers".
It seems difficult to stretch belief that timesharing between mainframe computers is the Internet - a point of origin perhaps, but hardly the single point of beginnings for the Internet.
What defines the Internet is the capacity to connect networks of different types. It therefore follows that Arpanet as a single network could hardly be described as an Internet - Arpanet would have to connect to something completely different before it could be part of an Internet.
According to Bob Kahn, who we will hear more of in the next section, "What the ARPANET didn't address was the issue of interconnecting multiple networks and all the attendant issues that raised.Beginnings of the Commercial Internet From the late s on, the importance of the connectivity provided by the NSF and its educational alliances cannot be overstated.
There was no commercial viability or the Internet at this time, but it continued to grow at an incredible rate. Forty years of the internet: how the world changed for ever It was much more important than that.
and email was beginning to change the world; the first really usable web browser wasn't. The domain name system was important in that it made addresses on the Internet more human-friendly compared to its numerical IP address counterparts.
DNS servers allowed Internet users to type in an easy-to-remember domain name and then converted it to the IP address automatically. Commercial network providers in the U.S. and Europe are beginning to offer Internet backbone and access support on a competitive basis to any interested parties.
CSNET service was discontinued having fulfilled its important early role in the provision of academic networking service.
A key feature of CREN is that its operational costs are. However, whichever definition of what the Internet is we use, neither the Pentagon nor hold up as the time and place the Internet was invented.
A project which began in the Pentagon that year, called Arpanet, gave birth to the Internet protocols sometime later (during the 's), but was not the Internet's beginnings.
Development of the Internet and the World Wide Web The recent growth of the Internet and the World Wide Web makes it appear that the world is witnessing the arrival of a completely new technology.