German-occupied EuropeConcentration and extermination camps, and ghettos. Territories of the Axis Powers are in olive green. The logistics of the mass murder turned the country into what Michael Berenbaum called "a genocidal state".
It began with a simple boycott of Jewish shops and ended in the gas chambers at Auschwitz as Adolf Hitler and his Nazi followers attempted to exterminate the entire Jewish population of Europe.
In Januaryafter a bitter ten-year political struggle, Adolf Hitler came to power in Germany. Hitler also put forward racial theories asserting that Germans with fair skin, blond hair and blue eyes The history of the murder of jews during the holocaust the supreme form of human, or master race.
The Jews, according to Hitler, were the racial opposite, and were actively engaged in an international conspiracy to keep this master race from assuming its rightful position as rulers of the world. German Jews were mostly cosmopolitan in nature and proudly considered themselves to be Germans by nationality and Jews only by religion.
They had lived in Germany for centuries, fought bravely for the Fatherland in its wars and prospered in numerous professions.
But they were gradually shut out of German society by the Nazis through a never-ending series of laws and decrees, culminating in the Nuremberg Laws of which deprived them of their German citizenship and forbade intermarriage with non-Jews.
They were removed from schools, banned from the professions, excluded from military service, and were even forbidden to share a park bench with a non-Jew.
At the same time, a carefully orchestrated smear campaign under the direction of Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels portrayed Jews as enemies of the German people. Daily anti-Semitic slurs appeared in Nazi newspapers, on posters, the movies, radio, in speeches by Hitler and top Nazis, and in the classroom.
As a result, State-sanctioned anti-Semitism became the norm throughout Germany.
The Jews lost everything, including their homes and businesses, with no protest or public outcry from non-Jewish Germans. The devastating Nazi propaganda film The Eternal Jew went so far as to compared Jews to plague carrying rats, a foreshadow of things to come.
They also lost everything and were even forced to perform public acts of humiliation such as scrubbing sidewalks clean amid jeering pro-Nazi crowds.
Back in Germany, years of pent-up hatred toward the Jews was finally let loose on the night that marks the actual beginning of the Holocaust. Spurred on by Joseph Goebbels, Nazis used the death of vom Rath as an excuse to conduct the first State-run pogrom against Jews.
Ninety Jews were killed, synagogues were burned and most Jewish shops had their windows smashed. The first mass arrest of Jews also occurred as over 25, men were hauled off to concentration camps. As a kind of cynical joke, the Nazis then fined the Jews 1 Billion Reichsmarks for the destruction which the Nazis themselves had caused during Kristallnacht.
However, most Western countries maintained strict immigration quotas and showed little interest in receiving large numbers of Jewish refugees.
This was exemplified by the plight of the St. During the time of my struggle for power it was in the first instance only the Jewish race that received my prophecies with laughter when I said that I would one day take over the leadership of the State, and with it that of the whole nation, and that I would then among other things settle the Jewish problem.
Their laughter was uproarious, but I think that for some time now they have been laughing on the other side of their face. Today I will once more be a prophet: That war began in September as German troops stormed into Poland, a country that was home to over three million Jews.
Inside these overcrowded walled-in ghettos, tens of thousands died a slow death from hunger and disease amid squalid living conditions. In the spring ofHimmler ordered the building of a concentration camp near the Polish city of Oswiecim, renamed Auschwitz by the Germans, to hold Polish prisoners and to provide slave labor for new German-run factories to be built nearby.
Meanwhile, Hitler continued his conquest of Europe, invading Belgium, Holland, Luxembourg and France, placing ever-increasing numbers of Jews under Nazi control. The Nazis then began carefully tallying up the actual figures and also required Jews to register all of their assets.
But the overall question remained as to what to do with the millions of Jews now under Nazi control - referred to by the Nazis themselves as the Judenfrage Jewish question.
The following year,would be the turning point. In June, Hitler took a tremendous military gamble by invading the Soviet Union. Before the invasion he had summoned his top generals and told them the attack on Russia would be a ruthless "war of annihilation" targeting Communists and Jews and that normal rules of military conflict were to be utterly ignored.
Inside the Soviet Union were an estimated three million Jews, many of whom still lived in tiny isolated villages known as Shtetls.
Following behind the invading German armies, four SS special action units known as Einsatzgruppen systematically rounded-up and shot all of the inhabitants of these Shtetls. Einsatz execution squads were aided by German police units, local ethnic Germans, and local anti-Semitic volunteers.
Leaders of the Einsatzgruppen also engaged in an informal competition as to which group had the highest tally of murdered Jews. We, the SS, have to carry out this order I have therefore chosen Auschwitz for this purpose.
This would become the future site of four large gas chambers to be used for mass extermination. The idea of using gas chambers originated during the Euthanasia Program, the so-called "mercy killing" of sick and disabled persons in Germany and Austria by Nazi doctors.
By now, experimental mobile gas vans were being used by the Einsatzgruppen to kill Jews in Russia. Special trucks had been converted by the SS into portable gas chambers. However, this method was found to be somewhat impractical since the average capacity was less than 50 persons.
For the time being, the quickest killing method continued to be mass shootings.The history of the Jews during World War II is almost synonymous with the Jewish persecution and murder of unprecedented scale in modern times in political Europe inclusive of European North Africa (pro-Nazi Vichy-North Africa and Italian Libya).
The massive scale of the Holocaust which happened during World War II heavily affected the Jewish nation and world public opinion, which only.
The Holocaust was the murder by Nazi Germany of six million Jews. While the Nazi persecution of the Jews began in , the mass murder was committed during . The Holocaust: A History of the Jews of Europe During the Second World War [Martin Gilbert] on alphabetnyc.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
Deftly weaving together historical research and survivors' testimonies, The Holcaust is Gilbert's acclaimed and definitive history of the European Jews/5().
The Holocaust (also called Ha-Shoah in Hebrew) refers to the period from January 30, - when Adolf Hitler became chancellor of Germany - to May 8, , when the war in Europe officially ended. During this time, Jews in Europe were subjected to progressively harsher persecution that ultimately led to the murder of 6,, Jews ( million of these being children) and the destruction of.
A brilliant, haunting, and profoundly original portrait of the defining tragedy of our time. In this epic history of extermination and survival, Timothy Snyder presents a new explanation of the great atrocity of the twentieth century, and reveals the risks that we face in the twenty-first.
History of Switzerland Holocaust: Jewish Refugees in Switzerland during World War II. Towards the end of the 20 th century, Switzerland was the target of massive verbal and judicial attacks concerning its refugee politics during World War II. The background of these attacks is the Holocaust, the most barbaric genozide in history, committed by Adolf Hitler's Nazist Germany: Jews and other.